Lockwood, Andrew, & Kyunghee Pyun (2019, November, in press). Developing a scale measuring customers’ hotel servicescape perceptions in upscalehotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. (ePub in advance of print) (Link: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/846017) (https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2017-0208)
Abstract: Purpose: This paper describes the detailed process of development of a reliable scale to measure customer perceptions of the upscale hotel servicescape that could then be used as a basis for intra and inter-hotel comparisons and to examine relationships with other variables, such as emotions, satisfaction and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the existing service and hospitality literature provided a range of dimensions and attributes of the hotel servicescape which were used as the basis for a Q sort technique to determine the content adequacy of newly-developed and existing items. Testing the emergent items was done through a questionnaire that was distributed at five luxury upscale hotels in London providing 612 fully valid responses, which, using a split sample, were subjected to both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to explore the dimensionality and reliability of the instrument. Findings: Although the Q-sort suggested four key dimensions, the outcome of the factor analyses revealed five dimensions with high reliability –– aesthetic quality; functionality; atmosphere; spaciousness; and physiological conditions. ‘Aesthetic quality’ appeared to be the most important factor, followed by ‘functionality’, ‘atmosphere’, ‘spaciousness’ and ‘physiological conditions’. Research limitations/implications: As this study was conducted with customers of upscale luxury hotels in London, the resulting scales need to be further tested in other hotel segments and in other locations. Practical implications: This study provides upscale hotel managers with an effective measurement tool which will enable them to benchmark their operation and make improvements that could lead to a better impression and evaluation of their hotel. The scale has a variety of potential applications and can serve as a framework for further research in the hotel industry.
Andrew Lockwood <email@example.com> is with the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, Guilford, UK.