Nzahabwanayo, Sylvestre, Gillian Finchilescu, & Joseph J. Divala (2019, October). What are the qualities of good citizenship in post-genocide Rwanda? High school teachers speak through a Q-methodological approach. Interchange 50, 461–499. (doi: (Link:

Abstract: Teachers play a crucial role in the political socialization of adolescents. Using Q-methodology, we explored high school teachers’ conceptions of good citizenship in post-genocide Rwanda. Teachers ranked 50 statements, describing a ‘good citizen’, on a 9-column grid, anchored by ‘least important citizenship behaviour’ and ‘most important citizenship behaviour’. The four perspectives that emerged viewed good citizenship as (a) being mindful or considerate of the 1994 genocide perpetrated against the Tutsi and promoting unity as well as reconciliation among Rwandans; (b) being morally upright and demonstrating a strong sense of patriotism; (c) being politically enthusiastic; and (d) promoting justice. The study argues for a shift towards more critical forms of citizenship. It also advocates the reinforcement of democratic and participatory skills among teachers.

Gillian Finchilescu <> is in the Department of Psychology, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

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