Asquer, Alberto, & Inna Krachkovskaya (2017, September). Exploring attitudes and attitudes change towards performance appraisal: A longitudinal Q-method analysis of physician executives. SSRN [Social Science Research Network]. 30 pp. (Link: (Access:

Abstract: The use of performance appraisal is especially controversial in public sector organizations where professionalism norms contribute shaping individual identity and behavior. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of the attitudes of physician executives towards performance appraisal in a public health organization. By using Q method on 2013 and 2016 data, the analysis identifies three different attitudes towards PA held by physician executives. The analysis, moreover, provides evidence that attitudes change over time, and that individuals become more critical towards PA and more inclined to make amendments to PA practices. Findings from this study form indications for a dynamic theory of performance appraisal.

Alberto Asquer <> is in the Department of Financial and Management Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK; and <> Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche ed Aziendali, Universita di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.