Q Bibliography: Chen & Hsu on good nurse traits and quality care

Chen, Shu-Yueh, & Hui-Chen Hsu (2015, November). Nurses’ reflections on good nurse traits: Implications for improving care quality. Nursing Ethics, 22(7), 790-802. (doi: 10.1177/0969733014547973) (previously posted as in press)

Abstract: Background: Good nurses show concern for patients by caring for them effectively and attentively to foster their well-being. However, nurses cannot be taught didactically to be “good” or any trait that characterizes a good nurse. Nurses’ self-awareness of their role traits warrants further study. Objectives: This study aimed (a) to develop a strategy to elicit nurses’ self-exploration of the importance of good nurse traits and (b) to explore any discrepancies between such role traits perceived by nurses as ideally and actually important. Research design: For this mixed-method study, we used good nurse trait card play to trigger nurses’ reflections based on clinical practice. Nurse participants appraised the ideal and actual importance of each trait using a Q-sort grid. The gap between the perceived ideal and actual importance of each trait was examined quantitatively, while trait-related clinical experiences were analyzed qualitatively. Participants and research context: Participants were 35 in-service nurses (mean age = 31.6 years (range = 23–49 years); 10.1 years of nursing experience (range = 1.5–20 years)) recruited from a teaching hospital in Taiwan. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the study site. Findings: Good nurse trait card play with a Q-sort grid served as an icebreaker to help nurse participants talk about their experiences as embodied in good quality nursing care. Nurses’ perceived role-trait discrepancies were divided into three categories: over-performed, least discrepant, and under-performed. The top over-performed trait was “obedience.” Discussion: Patients’ most valued traits (“patient,” “responsible,” “cautious,” and “considerate”) were perceived by participants as ideally important but were under-performed, perhaps due to experienced nurses’ loss of idealism. Conclusion: Good nurse trait card play with Q-sort grid elicited nurses’ self-dialogue and revealed evidence of the incongruity between nurses’ perceived ideal and actual importance of traits. The top over-performed trait, “obedience,” deserves more study.

Shu-Yueh Chen is in the Department of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taichung City, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Akhtar-Danesh et al. on simulation use in nursing education

Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, Pamela Baxter, Ruta K. Valaitis, Wendy Stanyon, & Susan Sproul (2009, April). Nurse faculty perceptions of simulation use in nursing education. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 31(3), 312-329.

Abstract: In this study nursing faculty perceptions of the implementation of simulation in schools of nursing across Ontario, Canada, were explored using the Q-methodology technique. Following Q-methodology guidelines, 104 statements were collected from faculty and students with exposure to simulation to determine the concourse (what people say about the issue). The statements were classified into six domains, including teaching and learning, access/reach, communication, technical features, technology set-up and training, and comfort/ease of use with technology. They were then refined into 43 final statements for the Q-sample. Next, 28 faculty from 17 nursing schools participated in the Q-sorting process. A by-person factor analysis of the Q-sort was conducted to identify groups of participants with similar viewpoints. Results revealed four major viewpoints held by faculty including: (a) Positive Enthusiasts, (b) Traditionalists, (c) Help Seekers, and (d) Supporters. In conclusion, simulation was perceived to be an important element in nursing education. Overall, there was a belief that clinical simulation requires (a) additional support in terms of the time required to engage in teaching using this modality, (b) additional human resources to support its use, and (c) other types of support such as a repository of clinical simulations to reduce the time from development of a scenario to implementation. Few negative voices were heard. It was evident that with correct support (human resources) and training, many faculty members would embrace clinical simulation because it could support and enhance nursing education.

Noori Akhtar-Danesh , Pamela Baxter, and Ruta K. Valaitis are at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario), which hosted the 2008 Q conference. Wendy Stanyon and Susan Sproul are affiliated with the University of Ontario Institute of Technology.

Q Bibliography: Akhtar-Danesh et al. on Q methodology in nursing research

Noori Akhtar-Danesh, Andrea Baumann, & Lis Cordingley (2008, October). Q-methodology in nursing research: A promising method for the study of subjectivity. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 30(6), 759-773.

Abstract: This article provides an overview and application of Q-methodology for nursing researchers, with an illustration of its appropriate usage. Q-methodology has been identified as a method for the analysis of subjective viewpoints and has the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative methods. It shares with qualitative methodologies the aim of exploring subjectivity; however, statistical techniques are used to reveal the structure of views. This article describes the use of Q-methodology to examine subjectivity systematically, revealing connections between accounts that other techniques may overlook. An example from the literature is presented. Q-methodology is useful in qualitative nursing research concerned with the exploration and comparison of subjectivity and attitudes. It can be used to effectively identify attitudes, perceptions, feelings, and values as well as explore life experiences such as stress, self-esteem, body image, and satisfaction.

Noori Akhtar-Danesh is in the School of Nursing at McMaster University and is host for next month’s Q conference in Hamilton, Ontario.