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Q Bibliography: Ludlow et al. on aged care prioritization of care

Ludlow, Kristiana, Kate Churruca, Virginia Mumford, & Louise A. Ellis (2021, April). Aged care residents’ prioritization of care: A mixed‐methods study. Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy, 24(2), 525-536. (Link:

Abstract: Background: Eliciting residents’ priorities for their care is fundamental to delivering person‐centred care in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Prioritization involves ordering different aspects of care in relation to one another by level of importance. By understanding residents’ priorities, care can be tailored to residents’ needs while considering practical limitations of RACFs. Objectives: To investigate aged care residents’ prioritization of care. Design: A mixed‐methods study comprising Q methodology and qualitative methods. Setting and Participants: Thirty‐eight residents living in one of five Australian RACFs. Method: Participants completed a card–sorting activity using Q methodology in which they ordered 34 aspects of care on a pre‐defined grid by level of importance. Data were analysed using inverted factor analysis to identify factors representing shared viewpoints. Participants also completed a think‐aloud task, demographic questionnaire, post‐sorting interview and semi‐structured interview. Inductive content analysis of qualitative data was conducted to interpret shared viewpoints and to identify influences on prioritization decision making. Results: Four viewpoints on care prioritization were identified through Q methodology: Maintaining a sense of spirituality and self in residential care, information sharing and family involvement, self‐reliance, and timely access to staff member support. Across the participant sample, residents prioritized being treated with respect, the management of medical conditions, and their independence. Inductive content analysis revealed four influences on prioritization decisions: level of dependency, dynamic needs, indifference, and availability of staff. Conclusions: Recommendations for providing care that align with residents’ priorities include establishing open communication channels with residents, supporting residents’ independence and enforcing safer staffing ratios.

Kristiana Ludlow <> is in the Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Q Bibliography: Karakasis on Greek views of the 2015 bailout agreement

Karakasis, Vasileios P. (2022). Greek views of the 2015 bailout agreement: A matter of power asymmetries or socialisation? The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs. (ePub in advance of print) (Link:

Abstract: In July 2015, after intense negotiations with its creditors, Greece received a bailout in exchange for fiscal restraint. The coalition government at that time, led by the left-wing SYRIZA party, elected on the basis of an anti-austerity platform, eventually accepted the prevalent austerity frames of the creditors. Through the aid of Q-method, an analysis of Greek opinion leaders’ views of the negotiation highlights that this outcome can be explained in two different ways. The first posits that the ideological overtones that ruling SYRIZA injected in its negotiation strategy exhibited a lack of socialisation and undermined Greece’s already weak bargaining position. The second focuses on the institutional status quo bias in the Eurogroup in Germany’s favour, which discourages any change in the Eurozone. These two views may have partly been influenced by questions of political accountability.

Vasileios P Karakasis <> is in European Studies and with the Research Group “Changing Role of Europe,” The Hague University of Applied Sciences, The Hague, Netherlands.

Q Bibliography: Logan on Don Lindberg’s home library and leadership traits

Logan, Robert A. (2021). Don Lindberg’s home library and leadership traits. In Betsy L. Humphreys, Robert A. Logan, Randolph A. Miller, & Elliot R. Siegel (Eds.), Transforming biomedical informatics and health information access: Don Lindberg and the U.S. National Library of Medicine (Health Technology and Informatics series, Vol. 288, pp. 437-453). Amsterdam, Berlin, and Washington: IOS Press. ISBN 978-1-64368-238-9 (print), ISBN 978-1-64368-239-6 (online). (Open Access:

Abstract: This chapter introduces the importance and some of the multidisciplinary diversity in Donald A.B. Lindberg M.D.’s home library. The latter collection minimally suggests his varied interests, which often inspired a multidisciplinary approach to tackling problems and managing the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). Dr. Lindberg converted the ideas he picked up from reading into administering projects as well as to set aspirational goals for NLM and for himself. The chapter suggests Dr. Lindberg’s home library was an enduring reservoir of knowledge, judgment, planning, and creativity. The chapter also discusses two of Dr. Lindberg’s leadership traits: the cultivation of discovery and project development in educational administration and the need for leaders to determine and act in the greater public interest. The chapter suggests the latter two traits defined Dr. Lindberg’s NLM leadership.

Robert A Logan <> is retired from the U.S. National Library of Medicine. He is past president of ISSSS and hosted the 23rd annual meeting in Bethesda, MD (2007) at which Donald Lindberg (1933-2019) was the banquet speaker. Lindberg was director of the United States National Library of Medicine (, founding president of the American Medical Informatics Association, and played a prominent role in the development of PubMed. He was in the University of Missouri Medical School from 1960 to 1984 and was a close friend of William Stephenson, as discussed in the above chapter.

Q Bibliography: D’Agostini et al. on Hong Kong shippers’ selection criteria of ocean carriers

D’Agostini, Enrico, Sohyun Jo, Hyung-Sik Nam, & Young Soo Kim (2022, January). Q-method and its application in clustering Hong Kong shippers’ selection criteria of ocean carriers. Research in Transportation Business & Management, art. 100785. (ePub in advance of print) (Link:

Abstract: Despite recent geopolitical tensions across nations, the liner shipping industry still plays a pivotal role in supporting international trade by ensuring low-cost transportation services. However, given the increased intensity of mergers and acquisitions, the formation of new shipping alliances and general perception of the commoditisation of ocean carriers pose numerous risks in how shipping line operations interact with shippers’ needs. Previous research has identified several factors regarding ocean carrier selection criteria from the shippers’ perspective, mainly focusing on regional markets. Nonetheless, knowledge of how shippers address these factors is limited. In this study, through a mix of qualitative and quantitative analyses, Q-methodology is applied to investigate shippers’ choice behaviour regarding ocean carriers in Hong Kong. The results of our analysis show the emergence of three unique clusters of shippers with different needs when considering the ocean carrier selection process. The three clusters are ‘reliability and flexibility of service achiever’, ‘long-term shipper-carrier relationship builder’, and ‘customer service and cost-saving seeker’. These findings may assist in enabling shipping lines to enhance their competitiveness by analysing and selecting the most suitable strategy for serving customers and identifying operational and marketing areas that need to be restructured or strengthened.

Enrico D’agostini <> and Young Soo Kim <> are in the Department of International Logistics, Tongmyong University; Sohyun Jo <> is in the Division of Navigation Convergence Studies, and Hyung-Sik Nam <> is in the Department of Logistics, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Q Bibliography: Zagata, Uhnak, & Hrabák on societal roles and transformative potential of organic agriculture

Zagata, Lukas, Tomas Uhnak, & Jiří Hrabák (2021, December). Moderately radical? Stakeholders’ perspectives on societal roles and transformative potential of organic agriculture. Ecological Economics, 190(10), art. 107208. (Link:

Abstract: Organic agriculture has achieved many important milestones over the last three decades. Despite these achievements, criticism of the mainstream model of agriculture, which had originally contributed to the success of the organic sector, is potentially having a negative impact on its transformative potential. The main goal of this paper is to provide further empirical evidence that captures ongoing changes in the social discourse of the organic movement. Specific attention is paid to the formation of a relationship between the organic movement and other alternative initiatives and conventional agriculture, based on the potentially shared values of sustainability as articulated in the Organic 3.0 strategy. The empirical study was conducted in the Czech Republic. The study identifies three distinct discourses that show how different groups of stakeholders form their expectations towards organic farming. The findings of our study suggest that their views differ significantly when it comes to the functions of organic farming in society. Results of the study show that the dominant social discourse on organic farming principally conveys the Organic 3.0 strategy.

Lukas Zagata <>, Tomas Uhnak <>, and Jiří Hrabák <> are in the Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Q Bibliography: Di Giuseppe et al. on children’s defense mechanisms

Di Giuseppe, Mariagrazia, Tracy A. Prout, Lauren Ammar, Thomas Kui, & Ciro Conversano (2021). Assessing children’s defense mechanisms with the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales Q-sort for Children. Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process and Outcome, 24(3), 320-327. (Open Access:

Abstract: Defense mechanisms are unconscious and automatic psychological processes that serve to protect the individual from painful emotions and thoughts. There is ample evidence from the adult psychotherapy and mental health literature suggesting the salience of defenses in the maintenance and amelioration of psychological distress. Although several tools for the assessment of children’s defenses exist, most rely on projective and self-report tools, and none are based on the empirically derived hierarchy of defenses. This paper outlines the development of the defense mechanisms rating scale Q-sort for children (DMRS-Q-C), a 60-item, observer-rated tool for coding the use of defenses in child psychotherapy sessions. Modifications to the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scale Q-Sort for adults to create a developmentally relevant measure and the process by which expert child psychotherapists collaborated to develop the DMRS-Q-C are discussed. A clinical vignette describing the child’s defensive functioning as assessed by the innovative DMRS-Q-C method is also reported. Finally, we provide an overview of forthcoming research evaluating the validity of the DMRS-Q-C.

Mariagrazia Di Giuseppe <> is in the Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology, Critical and Care Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Q Bibliography: Ramlo, Salmon, & Xue on views of PBL chemistry lab students in a general education science course

Ramlo, Susan, Carrie Salmon, & Yuan Xue (2021). Student views of a PBL chemistry laboratory in a general education science course. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 15(2). 11 pp. (Access:

Abstract: Several traditional chemistry lab experiences were replaced with a problem-based learning (PBL) experience in a university general education, conceptual chemistry course. Students worked in small groups on an authentic chemistry problem in which each student played a different role (Scientist, Engineering, Marketing Manager, Safety Officer, or Secretary). Midsemester, the pandemic forced the course online. Q methodology [Q] was used to determine the divergent viewpoints that existed amongst the students regarding their PBL experience. Each student provided their view by sorting related statements into a grid. Three divergent viewpoints emerged from the analyses: two viewpoints were positive about the PBL experience (Motivated learners and Committed to my group) and one was negative (Negative experience due to group dynamics). Descriptions of these views and implications are discussed.

Susan E Ramlo <sramlo@GMAIL.COM> is an independent researcher and consultant, Northeast Ohio, USA.

Q Bibliography: Sattler et al. on participatory research in times of COVID-19 and beyond

Sattler, Claudia, Jens Rommel, Cheng Chen, Marina García-Llorente, Inés Gutiérrez-Briceño, Katrin Prager, Maria F. Reyes, Barbara Schröter, Christoph Schulze, Lenny G.J. van Bussel, Lasse Loft, Bettina Matzdorf, & Eszter Kelemen (2022, January). Participatory research in times of COVID-19 and beyond: Adjusting your methodological toolkits. One Earth, 5(1), 62-73. (Link: (Open Access:

Summary: Solving grand environmental societal challenges calls for transdisciplinary and participatory methods in social-ecological research. These methods enable co-designing the research, co-producing the results, and co-creating the impacts together with concerned stakeholders. COVID-19 has had serious impacts on the choice of research methods, but reflections on recent experiences of ‘‘moving online’’ are still rare. In this perspective, we focus on the challenge of adjusting different participatory methods to online formats used in five transdisciplinary social-ecological research projects. The key added value of our research is the lessons learned from a comparison of the pros and cons of adjusting a broader set of methods to online formats. We conclude that combining the adjusted online approaches with well-established face-to-face formats into more inclusive hybrid approaches can enrich and diversify the pool of available methods for postpandemic research. Furthermore, a more diverse group of participants can be engaged in the research process.

Jens Rommel <> is in the Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Q Bibliography: Rust et al. on causes and solutions to soil degradation

Rust, Niki, Ole Erik Lunder, Sara Iversen, Steven Vella, Elizabeth A. Oughton, Tor Arvid Breland, Jayne H. Glass, Carly M. Maynard, Rob McMorran, & Mark S. Reed (2022). Perceived causes and solutions to soil degradation in the UK and Norway. Land, 11(1), art. 131. (Open Access:

Abstract: Soil quality is declining in many parts of the world, with implications for the productivity, resilience and sustainability of agri-food systems. Research suggests multiple causes of soil degradation with no single solution and a divided stakeholder opinion on how to manage this problem. However, creating socially acceptable and effective policies to halt soil degradation requires engagement with a diverse range of stakeholders who possess different and complementary knowledge, experiences and perspectives. To understand how British and Norwegian agricultural stakeholders perceived the causes of and solutions to soil degradation, we used Q-methodology with 114 respondents, including farmers, scientists and agricultural advisers. For the UK, respondents thought the causes were due to loss of soil structure, soil erosion, compaction and loss of organic matter; the perceived solutions were to develop more collaborative research between researchers and farmers, invest in training, improve trust between farmers and regulatory agencies, and reduce soil compaction. In Norway, respondents thought soils were degrading due to soil erosion, monocultures and loss of soil structure; they believed the solutions were to reduce compaction, increase rotation and invest in agricultural training. There was an overarching theme related to industrialised agriculture being responsible for declining soil quality in both countries. We highlight potential areas for land use policy development in Norway and the UK, including multi-actor approaches that may improve the social acceptance of these policies. This study also illustrates how Q-methodology may be used to co-produce stakeholder-driven policy options to address land degradation.

Mark S Reed <> is in the Thriving Natural Capital Challenge Centre, Department of Rural Economy, Environment & Society, Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC), Edinburgh, UK.

Q Bibliography: Nelson et al. on managing fisheries in the face of climate change

Nelson, Laura K., Molly Bogeberg, Alison Cullen, Laura E. Koehn, Astrea Strawn, & Phillip S. Levin (2022, January). Perspectives on managing fisheries for community wellbeing in the face of climate change. Maritime Studies. (ePub in advance of print) (Link:

Abstract: Coastal communities are being impacted by climate change, affecting the livelihoods, food security, and wellbeing of residents. Human wellbeing is influenced by the health of the environment through numerous pathways and is increasingly being included as a desired outcome in environmental management. However, the contributors to wellbeing can be subjective and the values and perspectives of decision-makers can affect the aspects of wellbeing that are included in planning. We used Q methodology to examine how a group of individuals in fisheries management prioritize components of wellbeing that may be important to coastal communities in the California Current social-ecological system (SES). The California Current SES is an integrated system of ecological and human communities with complex linkages and connections where commercial fishing is part of the culture and an important livelihood. We asked individuals that sit on advisory bodies to the Pacific Fisheries Management Council to rank 36 statements about coastal community wellbeing, ultimately revealing three discourses about how we can best support or improve wellbeing in those communities. We examine how the priorities differ between the discourses, identify areas of consensus, and discuss how these perspectives may influence decision-making when it comes to tradeoffs inherent in climate adaptation in fisheries. Lastly, we consider if and how thoughts about priorities have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Laura K Nelson <> is in the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA).