De Leeuw, Renske R., Anke A. de Boer, Else J. Beckmann, Job van Exel, & Alexander E.M.G. Minnaert (2019). Young children’s perspectives on resolving social exclusion within inclusive classrooms. International Journal of Educational Research, 98, 324-335. (doi:

Abstract: Not all children benefit from the opportunities of inclusive education, especially children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD). This article presents the findings of a Q study exploring the perspectives of children with or at risk of SEBD, who experience difficulties with their social participation within the mainstream classroom. Forty-five children, aged 6–8 years, sorted 15 statements outlining approaches for resolving social exclusion and victimisation situations. Four shared perspectives were identified per situation using by-person factor analysis. These perspectives differed primarily with respect to the actors held responsible for resolving the situation. Therefore, a one-size-fits-all approach is not appropriate for addressing the social needs of children with or at risk of SEBD within the inclusive classroom.

Renske de Leeuw <> is in the Department of Special Needs Education and Youth Care, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.