Alanazi, Ahmed, Heather Wharrad, Fiona Moffatt, Michael Taylor, & Muhammad Ladan (2021, November). Q methodology in the COVID-19 era. Healthcare, 9(11), art. 1491. (Link:

Abstract: All face-to-face studies were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, as they could not be run in person due to rules and guidance linked to social distancing which were in force during the outbreak. Finding and testing an available COVID-secure approach for both participants and researchers was important as was the need to continue conducting such studies during this critical time. At present, the extant literature indicates a clear gap in research that elucidates how to carry out a Q methodology study online, step by step. This paper describes an option for online Q methodology using an approach that simulates all of the steps performed in a face-to-face setting using an open-source software known as Easy-HtmlQ. Using a case study in telemedicine adoption as illustration, this paper also considers the perspective of both research participants and Q methodology researchers via semi-structured interviews. Using Easy-HtmlQ V1.1 in online Q methodology studies appears to be an affordable, practical and user-friendly solution. Some of the benefits associated with running Q methodology studies online were the decreased costs, enabling the recruitment of wider number of participants, providing a COVID-19-secure environment and offering convenience to both participants and researchers during the research process. The findings of this study may contribute to increasing the number of online Q methodology studies in the future, as it has succeeded in offering a feasible approach for Q methodology researchers.

Ahmed S. Alanazi <> is in the School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; and the College of Medical Rehabilitation Sciences, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.