Valliere, Dave (2017). Belief patterns of entrepreneurship: Exploring cross-cultural logics. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 23(2), 245-266. (doi: 10.1108/IJEBR-12-2015-0297) (Link:

Abstract: Purpose – Under the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), subjective norms are important antecedents of entrepreneurial intent. But little is known about the forces that shape these. Hofstede’s national culture has implicated, but the conceptual distance between it and subjective norms is wide. The purpose of this paper is to explore an intermediate level to propose a mechanism by which national cultures give rise to individual beliefs about entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach – Uses Q methodology with data from seven countries to discover patterns of beliefs in diverse cultures. Hierarchical clustering characterises an intermediate-level mechanism. Findings – In each country, a small number of patterns emerge, two of which are found in every country studied – despite the large cultural differences. Drawing on the institutional logics perspective, a model of individual sensemaking is developed to bridge between monolithic national culture and idiosyncratic subjective norms of individuals, and to explain the commonality of belief patterns observed. Several propositions are suggested for testing the model. Originality/value – Reports cultural attitudes towards entrepreneurship at a more granular level than previous research, and thereby discovers the existence of cross-cultural patterns. Proposes a novel model that connects macro forces of national culture with individual precursors of TPB through cultural entrepreneurship.

Dave Valliere <> is professor of entrepreneurship and business strategy at the School of Management and director of the Entrepreneurship Research Institute, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.