Jeon, Wonjae, Seunghyun Jang, & Kihong Joung (2021, September). Subjective perceptions of South Korean parents regarding the effectiveness of taekwondo education for adolescents and its characteristics: The Q methodology application. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(18), art. 9687. (Open Access:

Abstract: This study aims to determine why Korean parents provide adolescent children with continuous physical education through Taekwondo. The Q methodology was applied. The final 25 Q-samples were selected by composing the Q-population. Twenty parents who provided their children with Taekwondo education for more than 10 years were designated as the P-sample. Q-sorting was performed on the P-sample. Centroid factor analysis and varimax rotation were performed using version 2.35 of PQMethod program. The study observed four factors with a total explanatory variance of 69%. Types 1 to 4 (N = 5, 7, 5, and 3) pertained to a powerful means of enhancing mental health, the driving force behind stable school life and social development, improvement in psychological and social areas for a successful transition to adulthood, and increased awareness of the values of Taekwondo and importance of physical activity, with eigenvalues of 4.59, 6.42, 3.16, and 1.18 and explanatory variances of 0.16, 0.32, 0.12, and 0.09, respectively. Furthermore, consensus statements for each type were investigated as Q18 and Q17. These findings supported the academic foundation of proper Taekwondo education in adolescence and confirmed it as a powerful means of exerting a positive impact on adulthood.

Wonjae Jeon <> is in the Department of Senior Sports Course, Daegu Haany University, Daegu. Seunghyun Jang <> is in the Department of Physical Education, Pusan National University, Busan. Kihong Joung <> is in the Department of Physical Education, Kangnam University, Yongin, Korea.