Clausen, Jon, Arlene Borthwick, & David Rutledge (2021). Teacher educator perspectives on technology infusion: A closer look using Q methodology. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 29(1), 5-43. (Link:

Abstract: This study utilized Q methodology to examine non-educational technology teacher education faculty perspectives on the challenge of technology infusion within teacher education. We sought faculty perspectives on how technology influences learning, faculty confidence in preparing candidates to use technology, program design for technology integration, and leadership support for faculty and candidate development. Thirty-one faculty from six teacher education programs across the United States participated in the study and shared their perspectives. Different from traditional Likert scale data collection, a mixed methods Q methodology research design involved participants completing a forced sort of Q statements where they made value choices along a spectrum of “most unlike me” to “most like me,” while also providing written explanations of their rationale for the selections. Analysis revealed participants loaded on one of three factors: (1) Confident Believers, (2) Disillusioned vs. Positive Outlook (bipolar factor), and (3) Tentative and Receptive. Findings confirmed the need for intentional curriculum design, fieldwork, and assessment to prepare candidates for program-deep and program-wide technology infusion. Qualitative data provided depth to quantitative analysis, and highlighting the need for enhanced program design and leadership to intentionally infuse technology throughout teacher preparation.

Jon Clausen <> is in the Department of Educational Technology and Secondary Education, Ball State University, Muncie, IN; Arlene Borthwick <> is Professor Emerita in the College of Education, National Louis University, Chicago, IL; and David Rutledge <> is in the School of Teacher Preparation, Administration, and Leadership, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (USA).

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